Respones: Theory and Research –


Respones: Theory and Research –

Prior to crafting your responses, critically review the theory and article selected. Did your classmate provide enough detail for you to understand the theory and appropriately identify the specified elements of the article selected? What elements might you suggest he or she consider that were not present in the initial post? Were there ethical concerns presented in the article your colleague studied that were not addressed in his or her post? Was your colleague’s description of the proposed changes clear and appropriate in terms of the information presented in his or her article? Propose at least one change that your colleague did not consider, and explain why it would be an improvement to the study.

1st Response: Jones

Erikson has an eight stage theory of identity and psychosocial development.
Erik Erikson, a German psychoanalyst real influenced by Sigmund Freud, explored three aspects of identity: the ego identity (self), personal identity (the personal idiosyncrasies that distinguish a person from another, social/cultural identity (the collection of social roles a person might play in life. The 8th stages start all the way from infants all the way up to adulthood.

When looking at this research done on friendship using Erickson very it gave a clear picture. The research was on

Young adults (n = 702; 18–23 years old) completed measures of psychosocial development, identity status, and
friendship. Friendship conflict and support were related with psychosocial development, and with the identity
statuses. As per Erikson’s prescription, early psychosocial stages were relevant to the identity statuses. After
statistically controlling for the predictive variability contributed by trust, autonomy, initiative, with the
identity status measures, conflict and support within friendships contributed predictive “variability to identity
achievement (3.2%), moratorium (2.4%), and diffusion (2.5%), but neither conflict nor support within friendship. Conflict within friendships was positively related with moratorium and diffusion,
and support within friendships was negative”(JONES, R. M., VATERLAUS, J. JACKSON, M. A., & MORRILL, T. B. (2014).

The reason for the research was to show the importance of a relationship. The research was conducted with 10 introduction classes to psychology which resulted in 1100 students their ages range from 17 to 81. There was questionnaires he’s giving out and complete it by 53% of the students the majority of the students back completed questionnaires were Caucasian and Hispanic. The benefits of the research was to understand how adults viewed adolescent friendship when they were younger. When looking at the ethic issues we have to make sure that all I treated with respect and consent forms are sorry for all individuals that under the age of 18 years of age.

JONES, R. M., VATERLAUS, J. JACKSON, M. A., & MORRILL, T. B. (2014). Friendship characteristics, psychosocial development, and adolescent identity formation. Personal Relationships, 21(1), 51-67. doi:10.1111/pere.12017

2nd Respones: Wright-Davidson

Theory & Research

The theories that I chose were Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Psychosexual theory and Erik Erickson (1902-1994) Psychosocial theory. They both have the same main ideas, development occurs across a sequence of stages, for instance conception, infant stages, to adult stages and final stages of life. Both theories emphasize psychological social and life cycle force faces which are crucial in development such as, genetic factors that influence development and environmental factors that influence development , this is call nature and nurture (Belcher,2016). Both Erickson and Freud both have interesting theories in my opinion. Erickson focused on identity and Freud based his theory on sex. Freud believed that an individual’s identity developed during adolescence . On the other hand, Erickson believed that an individual’s identity developed throughout a person’s life. Unlike Freud’s thoughts that maturation had a important role. Erickson placed more importance to the cultural demands on a child.

Freud’s psychosexual theory talks about different stages of development like Oral Stage, Stage of Latency, Genital Stage.Ericksons‘ psychosocial theory also talked about different stages like Trust vs. Mistrust, Autonomy vs. Doubt, Initiative vs. Guilt, Industry vs. Inferiority, Indentity vs. Role Confusion, Intimacy vs. Isolation, Generatively vs. Stagnation and Integrity vs. Despair. For example, the Generativity vs. Stagnation Stage is when middle-aged adults have a sense of the society and Integrity vs. Despair stage talks of older adults. Therefore, Erickson acts on environment control and can’t control low-self-esteem and if you can’t control your environment there’s a feeling of shame. Also, in Freud’s 1-3 years old Anal Region stage, this also has something to do with a person’s neatness and order. Furthermore, each stage has to develop and certain stages has to develop in order for survival this is called adaptation.

My research was on loneliness in older adults. Loneliness is universal and still very subjective feeling, natural to all human beings and a subjective experience of isolation(Farshad,2014). The experiment that was taken, took 12 elderly aged 68-85 years old this was a random assignment of a controlled group, this was a qualitative research with a content analysis approach. Collecting data in interview, tapes recorded and transcripts usually are people orientated and are qualitative research. The location was Humadam City and random sampling and content analysis method resulted in 187 primary codes, 7 subcategories and 3 main categories. The three main categories were feelings of alienation, separation of favorite activities, and fatigue and sadness. Conclusion: Loneliness is common in elderly and association with adverse healthy consequences both from a mental and physical health points of view. Therefore, appropriate intervention strategies to reduce isolation using the Erickson’s psychosocial theory can improve elderly quality of life to achieve ego integrity throughout their lives. In my opinion, this is also an ethical concern and benefits would be more social services in different areas and reduction of health cost. As a result, better quality of life and less concern and worry for the elderly.

In summary, Life span development psychology involves the study of constancy and a change in behavior or throughout life (Baltes,1987). Freud and Erickson both have theories on the development process of human behavior. And if one wants to know a problem it should be done through research to better society and to help use ethical concerns.


Baltes, P.B. (1987). Theoretical propositions of life span development psychology. On the dynamics between growth and decline. development Psychology, 23 (5), 611-626. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.23.5.67

Belcher, J. (2016). Human development theoretical perspective [PDF] college of Health, Human Services, and Science, Ashford, University, San Diego, CA.

Difference Between Erickson and Freud /Difference Between http://www.difference

Farshad, S.Falemeh,C., Ravenbakish, E.& Javad, M.(2014). Explanation of Loneliness in the elderly and comparison with Psychosocial development theory: A Quantitative Study: Journal of Educational Community Health, Vol.1, Iss 2,pp. 30-38


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